The developing countries have witnessed exponential economic growth over the past decade, and India is among the forerunners of them. However, like other developing countries India also is lurching with a huge burden of the demand-supply gap.
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) presently, In India, only about 64.5% have access to electricity. More than 18,000 villages (Approx 404.5 million people) live without electricity in India. The figure is darker for the African countries and under developed countries of Asia. The continent of Africa has only achieved energy access for 29% of its population so far. In this scenario, it is imperative that India and other energy starved countries meet its growing energy demand in a self-reliant, decentralized and sustainable manner.
Decentralized small scale hydro electric power generating unit is one of the most techno-commercially feasible solutions to the energy scarcity, in which a Pump-as –Turbine (PAT) can be employed as the prime mover of the generating or the pumping unit. A centrifugal pump that operates in reverse mode as a turbine, works on the same principle as a Francis turbine. The energy is recovered from pressure differences (head); while flow is fed back into the existing system. Both, direct drives of machinery and electricity generation (grid connected or isolated) or combinations of both of these are possible using PAT just as with a conventional turbine.
PAT is a type of hydroelectric power that typically produces up to 5 KW to 100 kW of electricity using the artificial flow of water stored in dams. Here a pump is used to rotate the generator to generate energy, which makes it affordable, easy to install & maintain.
This type of system can satisfy the needs of the remote dam sites and nearby locations where the flow of water is continuous.